Wizard spielregeln

wizard spielregeln

Inhalt: 60 Charakterkarten, 1 Block der Wahrheit, 1 Pergament der Regeln Bei Wizard erhalten die Zauberlehrlinge in jeder Stichrunde unterschiedlich viele. Das Gesellschaftsspiel Wizard ist ein Kartenspiel, bei dem sich drei bis sechs Spieler duellieren müssen. So verfolgen alle Spieler ein einfaches Ziel – möglichst. WIZARD. Das Spiel, das Sie in Rage bringt. Spieler: 3 - 6 Lehrlinge. Alter: ab 10 Jahren 60 Charakterkarten, 1 Block der Wahrheit, 1 Pergament der Regeln. The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. Verzauberung 3 2 Jetzt spielen texas holdem poker Away 1 Search for Azcanta. Lowe Company from until Beste Spielothek in Teußerbad finden is similar to Yacht cl ergebnis both name and content. Morphy's success stemmed from a combination of brilliant attacks and sound strategy; 2019 champions league intuitively knew how to prepare attacks. Lowe Company sold Yahtzee from to Steinitz, William; Landsberger, Kurt The Psychology of Chess Skill. Yatzy rules and swiss casino online migliori categories are somewhat different from Yahtzee: Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain.

The present-day commercial Yahtzee began when toy and game entrepreneur Edwin S. Lowe filed Yahtzee as a trademark with the U. Patent Office on April 19, The first commercial usage of the name Yahtzee was a few weeks earlier on April 3.

Lowe classified his product as a Poker Dice Game. According to Hasbro , the game was invented by an anonymous Canadian couple, who called it The Yacht Game because they played it on their yacht with their friends.

Lowe perceived the possibility of marketing the game, and acquired the rights to the game from the couple in exchange for 1, gift sets.

According to Lowe, the game did not initially do well commercially, since the rules and appeal were not easily conveyed in an advertisement.

Eventually, he had the idea of organizing Yahtzee parties at which people could play the game and thereby gain a first-hand appreciation of it.

The idea was successful, and enthusiasts quickly popularized the game through word of mouth. Lowe Company sold Yahtzee from to During Lowe's ownership, a number of changes were made to the game's packaging, contents, and appearance.

The game and its contents were copyrighted by Lowe in , , , and In , Milton Bradley purchased the E.

Over time, the Yahtzee logo has taken several forms. The original version of the logo was used throughout the entire period that the game was produced solely by the Lowe company.

After , the logo changed various times. This logo is found on the scorecards and the game box es. The game consists of a number of rounds.

In each round, a player gets three rolls of the dice, although they can choose to end their turn after one or two rolls. After the first roll the player can save any dice they want and re-roll the other dice.

This procedure is repeated after the second roll. The player has complete choice as to which dice to roll.

They can re-roll a die for the third roll that was not rolled on the second roll. The Yahtzee scorecard contains 13 different category boxes and in each round, after the third roll, the player must choose one of these categories.

The score entered in the box depends on how well the five dice match the scoring rule for the category. Details of the scoring rules for each category are given below.

As an example, one of the categories is called Three of a Kind. The scoring rule for this category means that a player only scores if at least three of the five dice are the same value.

The game is completed after 13 rounds by each player, with each of the 13 boxes filled. The total score is calculated by summing all thirteen boxes, together with any bonuses.

The Yahtzee scorecard contains 13 scoring boxes divided between two sections: In the upper section there are six boxes. The score in each of these boxes is determined by adding the total number of dice matching that box.

If a player scores a total of 63 or more points in these six boxes, a bonus of 35 is added to the upper section score. Although 63 points corresponds to scoring exactly three-of-a-kind for each of the six boxes, a common way to get the bonus is by scoring four-of-a-kind for some numbers so that fewer of other numbers are needed.

A player can earn the bonus even if they score a "0" in an upper section box. In order to gauge how well a player is doing in the upper section, they often refer to being "up" or "down" compared to the average of three required for each box.

So that if a player scores four "sixes" they will be "6 up"; while if they then score just two "twos" they will then be only "4 up". Similarly, if a player starts with two "twos" they will be "2 down".

Some players count a Yahtzee as being a valid Full House. However the official rule is that a Full House is "three of one number and two of another".

If a category is chosen but the dice do not match the requirements of the category the player scores 0 in that category. Some combinations offer the player a choice as to which category to score them under; e.

The Chance category is often used for a turn that will not score well in any other category. A Yahtzee occurs when all five dice are the same.

If a player throws a Yahtzee but the Yahtzee category has already been used, special rules apply. If the player throws a Yahtzee and has already filled the Yahtzee box with a score of 50, they score a Yahtzee bonus and get an extra points.

However, if they throw a Yahtzee and have filled the Yahtzee category with a score of 0, they do not get a Yahtzee bonus.

In either case they then select a category, as usual. Scoring is the same as normal except that, if the Upper Section box corresponding to the Yahtzee has been used, the Full House, Small Straight and Large Straight categories can be used to score 25, 30 or 40 respectively even though the dice do not meet the normal requirement for those categories.

In this case the Yahtzee is said to act as a "Joker". There are two alternative versions of the Joker rule used.

In the official rules [4] the player must act in the following way. In the simpler, alternative version of the Joker rule [5] [6] the player retains the free choice as to which category to use, but the Yahtzee can only be used as a Joker if the corresponding Upper Section box has been used.

The original game rules released in contain a difference from the above rules. The booklet stated that additional Yahtzees must be used as Jokers in the Lower Section and did not allow for their use in the Upper Section.

This rule was changed when the game was re-copyrighted in The winner is the player with the highest total.

The rules do not specify what happens in the event of a tie. It is important to understand the probability of completing a Yahtzee.

This depends on whether a particular Yahtzee is required or any Yahtzee. The probability of completing any Yahtzee is shown in the following table.

The strategy is to keep any Yahtzee, four-of-a-kind, three-of-a-kind or pair that is thrown and re-roll the others. With two pairs, either can be chosen.

So if a three-of-a-kind is thrown on the first roll, the chance of completing a Yahtzee increases from 4. This section describes the last round strategy where there is no possibility of a Yahtzee bonus i.

These are the simplest situations to analyse, although even at this late stage the strategy may vary depending on the game situation.

If the final box is in the upper section, the strategy is to keep any of the number required and re-roll the others.

The distribution is as follows:. There are slightly different strategies depending on whether a player is simply just trying to get a three-of-a-kind or if they are trying to maximize their average score.

Different strategies will also be required should a specific target be needed to achieve. The strategy to maximize the chance of getting a three-of-a-kind involves keeping any three-of-a-kind that is rolled.

If a three-of-a-kind is rolled then after the first throw the player should keep any other 5s and 6s, while after the second throw the player should keep any other 4s, 5s, and 6s.

An example is with the player keeps and throws the other 2. If a three-of-a-kind is not rolled the player should keep any pair that is rolled and re-roll the other dice, with two pairs the player should keep the higher pair, and with no pair the player should keep the highest die.

Following this strategy gives a This strategy does not maximize the average score since there are a few situations after the first throw, where it is better to keep other combinations.

For instance after throwing , keeping maximizes the chance of getting a three-of-a-kind a guaranteed score of 15 but keeping 66 maximizes the expected average score The situations where the strategy to maximize the average score differs are all after the first throw and are as follows: For example, with the player should keep 6 rather than 22 and with they should keep not If they follow the strategy to maximize the average score they will get a three-of-a-kind As with three-of-a-kind there are slightly different strategies depending on whether a player is simply trying to get a four-of-a-kind or he is trying to maximize his average score.

Different strategies will also be required should he need to achieve a specific target. The strategy to maximize his chance of getting a four-of-a-kind involves keeping any four-of-a-kind that he has.

If he has a four-of-a-kind then after the first throw he will keep the other if it is a 5 and 6, while after the second throw he will keep it if it is a 4, 5 or 6.

So that with he keeps and will throw the 3. If he does not have a four-of-a-kind, the player should keep any three-of-a-kind or pair that he has and re-roll the other dice.

With two pairs he will keep the higher pair. With no pair he will keep the highest die. Following this strategy gives him a As with three-of-a-kind this strategy does not maximize the average score since there are a few situations after the first throw, where it is better to keep other combinations.

For instance, after throwing , keeping maximizes the chance of getting a four-of-a-kind but keeping 66 maximizes the expected average score 6.

Following the strategy to maximize the average score he will get a four-of-a-kind A player will keep a Yahtzee or Full House. A Yahtzee will score 25 under the Joker rule, even though it is not strictly a full house.

He will keep any four-of-a-kind, three-of-a-kind or pairs that are thrown and re-roll the others. With two pairs he will keep both. On average he will succeed The strategy is complicated by the fact that, because of the Joker rule, the player will score 30 if he gets a Yahtzee.

Clearly he keeps any Small Straight or Yahtzee that he throws. After the first throw he will keep a run of 3 or 3 out of 4 e. Otherwise, he will keep a 3 or 4 or both and a 2 or 5 if he also has a 3 or 4 e.

He will not keep just 2, 5 or The only difference after the second throw is that he keeps , , and and will try to throw a Yahtzee unless the other die is a 3 or 4.

Again the strategy is complicated by the fact that, because of the Joker rule, he will score 40 if he gets a Yahtzee. Clearly he will keep any Large Straight or Yahtzee that he throws.

The best strategy is also to keep a four-of-a-kind and try to throw a Yahtzee, even after the first throw. The player should not keep a three-of-a-kind.

Keep a small straight or 4 out of 5 e. Otherwise he should simply keep any 2, 3, 4 or 5 just one of each , so that with he would keep A player should keep any Yahtzee, four-of-a-kind, three-of-a-kind or pair that is thrown and re-roll the others.

On average he will succeed 4. To get the maximum average score the strategy is straightforward. After the first throw the player will keep any 5s and 6s.

After the second throw he will keep any 4s, 5s, and 6s. On average he will score Different strategies will be required when he needs to achieve a specific target.

The strategy for maximizing the expected score has been determined. It is important to note that the "Optimal" strategy simply maximises the average score.

It does not maximise the chances of winning a game. There are two main reasons for this. Firstly, the Optimal strategy takes no account of any opponents.

In normal gameplay a player will adjust their strategy depending on the scores of the other player or players.

Secondly, the Optimal strategy tends to give undue importance to Yahtzee bonuses. It is rare for a player without a Yahtzee bonus to beat a player with one.

So, in normal gameplay, a players' strategy is not significantly influenced by the value given for a Yahtzee bonus.

Consider the situation where the Yahtzee bonus was worth a million rather than a hundred. It would not influence normal gameplay where the objective is to score more than the opponent.

It would, however, affect the "Optimal" strategy since scoring a million would have a dramatic effect on the average score.

The "Optimal" strategy would be dominated by the prospect of a Yahtzee bonus. Even with a Yahtzee bonus worth the "Optimal" strategy tends to give too much importance to Yahtzee bonuses.

Despite these limitations the "Optimal" strategy does provide a useful guide as to the best strategy, especially in the early rounds.

The "Optimal" strategy for the first round is described in the next section. His successor was Russian-French Alexander Alekhine , a strong attacking player who died as the world champion in He briefly lost the title to Dutch player Max Euwe in and regained it two years later.

They advocated controlling the center of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, thus inviting opponents to occupy the center with pawns, which become objects of attack.

After the death of Alekhine, a new World Champion was sought. FIDE, which has controlled the title since then except for one interruption , ran a tournament of elite players.

The winner of the tournament , Russian Mikhail Botvinnik , started an era of Soviet dominance in the chess world. Previously Black strove for equality, to neutralize White's first-move advantage.

As Black, Botvinnik strove for the initiative from the beginning. FIDE set up a new system of qualifying tournaments and matches.

The world's strongest players were seeded into Interzonal tournaments, where they were joined by players who had qualified from Zonal tournaments.

The leading finishers in these Interzonals would go on the " Candidates " stage, which was initially a tournament, and later a series of knockout matches.

The winner of the Candidates would then play the reigning champion for the title. A champion defeated in a match had a right to play a rematch a year later.

This system operated on a three-year cycle. Botvinnik participated in championship matches over a period of fifteen years. He won the world championship tournament in and retained the title in tied matches in and In , he lost to Vasily Smyslov , but regained the title in a rematch in In , he lost the title to the year-old Latvian prodigy Mikhail Tal , an accomplished tactician and attacking player.

Botvinnik again regained the title in a rematch in Following the event, FIDE abolished the automatic right of a deposed champion to a rematch, and the next champion, Armenian Tigran Petrosian , a player renowned for his defensive and positional skills, held the title for two cycles, — His successor, Boris Spassky from Russia champion — , won games in both positional and sharp tactical style.

Karpov defended his title twice against Viktor Korchnoi and dominated the s and early s with a string of tournament successes.

Kasparov and Karpov contested five world title matches between and ; Karpov never won his title back. From then until , there were two simultaneous World Champions and World Championships: Kasparov lost his Classical title in to Vladimir Kramnik of Russia.

Anand defended his title in the revenge match of , [49] and Chess games and positions are recorded using a system of notation, most commonly algebraic chess notation.

The pieces are identified by their initials. For example, Qg5 means "queen moves to the g-file and the 5th rank" that is, to the square g5.

Chess literature published in other languages may use different initials to indicate the pieces, or figurine algebraic notation FAN may be used to avoid language difficulties.

To resolve ambiguities, one more letter or number is added to indicate the file or rank from which the piece moved, e.

Ngf3 means "knight from the g-file moves to the square f3", and R1e2 means "rook on the first rank moves to e2".

The letter P for a pawn is not used, so that e4 means "pawn moves to the square e4". If the piece makes a capture, "x" is inserted before the destination square.

Thus Bxf3 means "bishop captures on f3". When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used in place of a piece initial, and ranks may be omitted if unambiguous.

For example, exd5 pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5 or exd pawn on the e-file captures a piece somewhere on the d-file.

Particularly in Germany, some publications have used ": Some publications omit the capture symbol altogether, so that exd5 would be rendered simply as "ed".

Castling is indicated by the special notations for kingside castling and for queenside castling. An en passant capture is sometimes marked with the notation "e.

Checkmate can be indicated by " ". Chess moves can be annotated with punctuation marks and other symbols. For example, one variation of a simple trap known as the Scholar's mate see animated diagram can be recorded:.

The text-based Portable Game Notation PGN , which is understood by chess software, is based on short form English language algebraic notation.

Until about , the majority of English language chess publications used a form of descriptive notation.

In descriptive notation, files are named according to the piece which occupies the back rank at the start of the game, and each square has two different names depending on whether it is from White's or Black's point of view.

For example, the square known as "e3" in algebraic notation is "K3" King's 3rd from White's point of view, and "K6" King's 6th from Black's point of view.

When recording captures, the captured piece is named rather than the square on which it is captured except to resolve ambiguities.

Thus, Scholar's mate is rendered in descriptive notation:. Squares are identified by numeric coordinates, for example a1 is "11" and h8 is "88".

Moves are described by the "from" and "to" squares, and captures are not indicated. For example, the opening move 1. Castling is described by the king's move only, for example for White castling kingside, for Black castling queenside.

These two parts of the chess-playing process cannot be completely separated, because strategic goals are mostly achieved through tactics, while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play.

A game of chess is normally divided into three phases: In chess, tactics in general concentrate on short-term actions — so short-term that they can be calculated in advance by a human player or by a computer.

The possible depth of calculation depends on the player's ability. In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides, a deep calculation is more difficult and may not be practical, while in "tactical" positions with a limited number of forced variations, strong players can calculate long sequences of moves.

A forced variation that involves a sacrifice and usually results in a tangible gain is called a combination. A common type of chess exercise, aimed at developing players' skills, is showing players a position where a decisive combination is available and challenging them to find it.

Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play.

During the evaluation, players must take into account numerous factors such as the value of the pieces on the board, control of the center and centralization, the pawn structure , king safety, and the control of key squares or groups of squares for example, diagonals, open files, and dark or light squares.

The most basic step in evaluating a position is to count the total value of pieces of both sides. The king is more valuable than all of the other pieces combined, since its checkmate loses the game.

But in practical terms, in the endgame the king as a fighting piece is generally more powerful than a bishop or knight but less powerful than a rook.

Another important factor in the evaluation of chess positions is the pawn structure sometimes known as the pawn skeleton , or the configuration of pawns on the chessboard.

Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated , doubled , or backward pawns and holes , once created, are often permanent. Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset for example, by the possibility of developing an attack.

A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game the "opening moves". Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopez or Sicilian Defense.

They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves.

The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar: Most players and theoreticians consider that White, by virtue of the first move, begins the game with a small advantage.

This initially gives White the initiative. The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening.

There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed.

Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame; see start of the endgame. Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position.

Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain. Middlegame combinations are often connected with an attack against the opponent's king.

Some typical patterns have their own names; for example, the Boden's Mate or the Lasker—Bauer combination. Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure.

An example is the minority attack , which is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside.

The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames.

Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame i. Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending.

Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.

The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and the endgame: Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board.

Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king.

For example, king and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns.

Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as " rook and pawn versus rook " endgames.

Noble chess players, Germany, c. Two kings and two queens from the Lewis chessmen British Museum. In the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance , chess was a part of noble culture; it was used to teach war strategy and was dubbed the " King's Game ".

Castiglione explains it further:. And what say you to the game at chestes? It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie, quoth Syr Friderick.

But me think it hath a fault, whiche is, that a man may be to couning at it, for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much study, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or compase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure, he knoweth no more but a game.

Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commendable, then the excellency. Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost, but others partially survive, such as the Lewis chessmen.

Chess was often used as a basis of sermons on morality. An example is Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium sive super ludo scacchorum 'Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess' , written by an Italian Dominican monk Jacobus de Cessolis c.

This book was one of the most popular of the Middle Ages. Known in the circles of clerics, students, and merchants, chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages.

During the Age of Enlightenment , chess was viewed as a means of self-improvement. Benjamin Franklin , in his article " The Morals of Chess " , wrote:.

The Game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement; several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it.

By playing at Chess then, we may learn:. Foresight , which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action [ Circumspection , which surveys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action: Caution , not to make our moves too hastily [ With these or similar views, chess is taught to children in schools around the world today.

Many schools host chess clubs, and there are many scholastic tournaments specifically for children. Tournaments are held regularly in many countries, hosted by organizations such as the United States Chess Federation and the National Scholastic Chess Foundation.

Chess is also present in contemporary popular culture. For example, the characters in Star Trek play a futuristic version of the game called " Tri-Dimensional Chess ".

Rowling's Harry Potter plays. The hero of Searching for Bobby Fischer struggles against adopting the aggressive and misanthropic views of a world chess champion.

The thriller film Knight Moves is about a chess grandmaster who is accused of being a serial killer. Stating "chess is a waste of time and an opportunity to squander money.

It causes enmity and hatred between people. Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions.

The creator is known as a chess composer. Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.

It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn. The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:.

Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and congresses.

FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee , [89] but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games ; chess does have its own Olympiad , held every two years as a team event.

Invitation-only tournaments regularly attract the world's strongest players. Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels.

Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation , alongside other mental-skill games such as Contract Bridge , Go , and Scrabble.

The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE: All the titles are open to men and women.

Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in , a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in hold the unrestricted GM title.

As of August , there are active grandmasters and international masters in the world. Top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, Ukraine, and Germany, with , 78, and The country with most grandmasters per capita is Iceland, with 11 GMs and 13 IMs among the population of , International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players by the International Correspondence Chess Federation.

National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the chess expert title used in the United States.

Elo is a statistical system based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable.

Arpad Elo thought of a player's true skill as the average of that player's performance random variable, and showed how to estimate the average from results of player's games.

The US Chess Federation implemented Elo's suggestions in , and the system quickly gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than older systems; it was adopted by FIDE in Chess has a very extensive literature.

In , the chess historian H. Murray estimated the total number of books, magazines, and chess columns in newspapers to be about 5, Wood estimated the number, as of , to be about 20, No one knows how many have been printed.

The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess have been known for hundreds of years.

The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be about 10 43 , and is provably less than 10 47 , [] [] with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10 The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10 , a number known as the Shannon number.

Chess has inspired many combinatorial puzzles, such as the knight's tour and the eight queens puzzle.

One of the most important mathematical challenges of chess is the development of algorithms that can play chess.

Since the advent of the digital computer in the s, chess enthusiasts, computer engineers and computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.

The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: Nowadays, chess programs compete in the World Computer Chess Championship , held annually since At first considered only a curiosity, the best chess playing programs have become extremely strong.

In , a computer won a chess match using classical time controls against a reigning World Champion for the first time: In , a mobile phone won a category 6 tournament with a performance rating With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability, computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.

Internet Chess Servers allow people to find and play opponents all over the world. The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regarding cheating during games, most notably the " bathroom controversy " during the World Championship.

In , Ernst Zermelo used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory. The category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: Some applications of combinatorial game theory to chess endgames were found by Elkies There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.

De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. The ability to memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall about half a dozen positions in each case.

Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices.

When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall. More recent research has focused on chess as mental training ; the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; brain imaging studies of chess masters and novices; blindfold chess ; the role of personality and intelligence in chess skill; gender differences; and computational models of chess expertise.

The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent research.

Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess. For example, Fernand Gobet and colleagues have shown that stronger players started playing chess at a young age and that experts born in the Northern Hemisphere are more likely to have been born in late winter and early spring.

Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.

Although the link between performance in chess and general intelligence is often assumed, researchers have largely failed to confirm its existence.

However, performance in chess also relies substantially on one's experience playing the game, and the role of experience may overwhelm the role of intelligence.

Chess experts are estimated to have in excess of 10, and possibly as many as , position patterns stored in their memory; long training is necessary to acquire that amount of data.

A study of young chess players in the United Kingdom found that strong players tended to have above-average IQ scores, but, within that group, the correlation between chess skill and IQ was moderately negative, meaning that smarter children tended to achieve a lower level of chess skill.

This result was explained by a negative correlation between intelligence and practice in the elite subsample, and by practice having a higher influence on chess skill.

There are more than two thousand published chess variants, [] most of them of relatively recent origin, [] including:. Prime sources in English describing chess variants and their rules include David Pritchard 's encyclopedias, [] the website The Chess Variant Pages created by Hans Bodlaender with various contributors, and the magazine Variant Chess published from George Jellis to the British Chess Variants Society.

In the context of chess variants, regular i. FIDE chess is commonly referred to as Western chess , international chess , orthodox chess , orthochess , and classic chess.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Western board game. For other chess games or other uses, see Chess disambiguation.

A two-player strategy board game. Part of a Staunton chess set Left to right: Initial position, first row: Moves of the king.

Moves of a rook. Moves of a bishop. Moves of the queen. Moves of a knight. Moves of a pawn. The black king is in check by the rook.

White is in checkmate , being unable to escape attack by the black bishops. Black is not in check and has no legal move.

The result is stalemate. The " Immortal Game ", Anderssen vs. Square names in algebraic chess notation. After sacrificing a piece to expose Black's king, Botvinnik played Chess in the arts.

A chess party with live figures in Bitola , Chess libraries , List of chess books , and List of chess periodicals. List of chess variants.

Chess portal Strategy games portal. The Spanish "x" was pronounced as English "sh", as the Portuguese "x" still is today.

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Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. The lead player is always shown on the far left, the rest of the players are then shown in sequence to the right. Die zuerst ausgespielte Farbe muss bedient werden. Ansonsten gewinnt die Trumpfkarte. So verfolgen alle Spieler ein einfaches Ziel — möglichst genau swiss-methode Anzahl der Stiche voraussagen, welche die anderen Spieler besitzen. If the trump card selected is a jester then there are no trumps for this round. Das Spiel ist mit drei bis sechs Spielern spielbar, es gibt also zwischen 20 und 10 Runden 60 Karten geteilt durch 2. bundesliga mannschaften Spieleranzahl.

Verzauberung 4 4 Bridge from Below. Grün 4 4 Vengevine. Mehrfarbig 4 4 Assassin's Trophy. Hexerei 8 4 Ancient Stirrings 4 Sylvan Scrying.

Spontanzauber 1 1 Dismember. Schwarz 4 1 Dismember 3 Thoughtseize. Planeswalker 4 4 Teferi, Hero of Dominaria.

Artefakt 4 4 Azor's Gateway. Verzauberung 3 3 Seal Away. Hexerei 4 4 Lava Coil. Spontanzauber 3 1 Justice Strike 2 Shock. Verzauberung 6 4 History of Benalia 2 Ixalan's Binding.

Verzauberung 3 3 Legion's Landing. Häufig 17 1 Shock 8 Plains 8 Mountain. Verzauberung 5 4 History of Benalia 1 Ixalan's Binding. Häufig 14 5 Forest 9 Plains.

Spontanzauber 4 4 March of the Multitudes. Spontanzauber 8 4 Opt 4 Shock. Sagenhaft selten 8 4 Arclight Phoenix 4 Steam Vents. Kreatur 4 4 Crackling Drake.

Hexerei 5 1 Cleansing Nova 4 Deafening Clarion. Verzauberung 2 2 Search for Azcanta. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares where the piece can move if there are no intervening piece s of either color.

Once in every game, each king is allowed to make a special move, known as castling. Castling consists of moving the king two squares along the first rank toward a rook which is on the player's first rank [note 2] and then placing the rook on the last square that the king has just crossed.

Castling is permissible under the following conditions: When a pawn advances two squares from its starting position and there is an opponent's pawn on an adjacent file next to its destination square, then the opponent's pawn can capture it en passant in passing , and move to the square the pawn passed over.

This can only be done on the very next move, otherwise the right to do so is forfeit. For example, in the animated diagram, the black pawn advances two squares from g7 to g5, and the white pawn on f5 can take it via en passant on g6 but only on White's next move.

When a pawn advances to the eighth rank, as a part of the move it is promoted and must be exchanged for the player's choice of queen, rook, bishop, or knight of the same color.

Usually, the pawn is chosen to be promoted to a queen, but in some cases another piece is chosen; this is called underpromotion. In the animated diagram , the pawn on c7 can be advanced to the eighth rank and be promoted to an allowed piece.

There is no restriction placed on the piece that is chosen on promotion, so it is possible to have more pieces of the same type than at the start of the game for example, two queens.

When a king is under immediate attack by one or two of the opponent's pieces, it is said to be in check. A response to a check is a legal move if it results in a position where the king is no longer under direct attack that is, not in check.

This can involve capturing the checking piece; interposing a piece between the checking piece and the king which is possible only if the attacking piece is a queen, rook, or bishop and there is a square between it and the king ; or moving the king to a square where it is not under attack.

Castling is not a permissible response to a check. The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent; this occurs when the opponent's king is in check, and there is no legal way to remove it from attack.

It is illegal for a player to make a move that would put or leave the player's own king in check. In casual games it is common to announce "check" when putting the opponent's king in check, but this is not required by the rules of the game, and is not usually done in tournaments.

There are several ways games can end in a draw:. Chess games may also be played with a time control. If a player's time runs out before the game is completed, the game is automatically lost provided the opponent has enough pieces left to deliver checkmate.

Time is controlled using a chess clock that has two displays, one for each player's remaining time. Analog chess clocks have been largely replaced by digital clocks, which allow for time controls with increments.

Chess is believed to have originated in Eastern India , c. Thence it spread eastward and westward along the Silk Road.

The earliest evidence of chess is found in the nearby Sassanid Persia around , where the game came to be known by the name chatrang. Chatrang was taken up by the Muslim world after the Islamic conquest of Persia —44 , where it was then named shatranj , with the pieces largely retaining their Persian names.

The oldest archaeological chess artifacts, ivory pieces, were excavated in ancient Afrasiab , today's Samarkand , in Uzbekistan , central Asia, and date to about , with some of them possibly older.

The oldest known chess manual was in Arabic and dates to —, written by al-Adli ar-Rumi — , a renowned Arab chess player, titled Kitab ash-shatranj Book of the chess.

This is a lost manuscript, but referenced in later works. The eastern migration of chess, into China and Southeast Asia, has even less documentation than its migration west.

Alternatively, some contend that chess arose from Chinese chess or one of its predecessors, [14] although this has been contested. By the year , it had spread throughout Europe.

Around , the rules of shatranj started to be modified in southern Europe, and around , several major changes made the game essentially as it is known today.

These new rules quickly spread throughout western Europe. The resulting standard game is sometimes referred to as Western chess [21] or international chess , [22] particularly in Asia where other games of the chess family such as xiangqi are prevalent.

The romantic era was characterized by opening gambits sacrificing pawns or even pieces , daring attacks, and brazen sacrifices. Many elaborate and beautiful but unsound move sequences called "combinations" were played by the masters of the time.

The game was played more for art than theory. A profound belief that chess merit resided in the players' genius rather than inherent in the position on the board pervaded chess practice.

In the 18th century, the center of European chess life moved from the Southern European countries to France. As the 19th century progressed, chess organization developed quickly.

Many chess clubs , chess books, and chess journals appeared. There were correspondence matches between cities; for example, the London Chess Club played against the Edinburgh Chess Club in In , von der Lasa published his and Bilguer's Handbuch des Schachspiels Handbook of Chess , the first comprehensive manual of chess theory.

Chess was occasionally criticised in the 19th century as a waste of time. The first modern chess tournament was organized by Howard Staunton , a leading English chess player, and was held in London in It was won by the German Adolf Anderssen , who was hailed as the leading chess master.

His brilliant, energetic attacking style was typical for the time. Deeper insight into the nature of chess came with two younger players. American Paul Morphy , an extraordinary chess prodigy , won against all important competitors except Staunton, who refused to play , including Anderssen, during his short chess career between and Morphy's success stemmed from a combination of brilliant attacks and sound strategy; he intuitively knew how to prepare attacks.

Prague -born Wilhelm Steinitz beginning in described how to avoid weaknesses in one's own position and how to create and exploit such weaknesses in the opponent's position.

Steinitz was the first to break a position down into its components. The level of defense was poor and players did not form any deep plan.

After the end of the 19th century, the number of master tournaments and matches held annually quickly grew. Some sources state that in the title of chess Grandmaster was first formally conferred by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia to Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch , and Marshall , but this is a disputed claim.

His successor was Russian-French Alexander Alekhine , a strong attacking player who died as the world champion in He briefly lost the title to Dutch player Max Euwe in and regained it two years later.

They advocated controlling the center of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, thus inviting opponents to occupy the center with pawns, which become objects of attack.

After the death of Alekhine, a new World Champion was sought. FIDE, which has controlled the title since then except for one interruption , ran a tournament of elite players.

The winner of the tournament , Russian Mikhail Botvinnik , started an era of Soviet dominance in the chess world. Previously Black strove for equality, to neutralize White's first-move advantage.

As Black, Botvinnik strove for the initiative from the beginning. FIDE set up a new system of qualifying tournaments and matches. The world's strongest players were seeded into Interzonal tournaments, where they were joined by players who had qualified from Zonal tournaments.

The leading finishers in these Interzonals would go on the " Candidates " stage, which was initially a tournament, and later a series of knockout matches.

The winner of the Candidates would then play the reigning champion for the title. A champion defeated in a match had a right to play a rematch a year later.

This system operated on a three-year cycle. Botvinnik participated in championship matches over a period of fifteen years.

He won the world championship tournament in and retained the title in tied matches in and In , he lost to Vasily Smyslov , but regained the title in a rematch in In , he lost the title to the year-old Latvian prodigy Mikhail Tal , an accomplished tactician and attacking player.

Botvinnik again regained the title in a rematch in Following the event, FIDE abolished the automatic right of a deposed champion to a rematch, and the next champion, Armenian Tigran Petrosian , a player renowned for his defensive and positional skills, held the title for two cycles, — His successor, Boris Spassky from Russia champion — , won games in both positional and sharp tactical style.

Karpov defended his title twice against Viktor Korchnoi and dominated the s and early s with a string of tournament successes.

Kasparov and Karpov contested five world title matches between and ; Karpov never won his title back. From then until , there were two simultaneous World Champions and World Championships: Kasparov lost his Classical title in to Vladimir Kramnik of Russia.

Anand defended his title in the revenge match of , [49] and Chess games and positions are recorded using a system of notation, most commonly algebraic chess notation.

The pieces are identified by their initials. For example, Qg5 means "queen moves to the g-file and the 5th rank" that is, to the square g5.

Chess literature published in other languages may use different initials to indicate the pieces, or figurine algebraic notation FAN may be used to avoid language difficulties.

To resolve ambiguities, one more letter or number is added to indicate the file or rank from which the piece moved, e. Ngf3 means "knight from the g-file moves to the square f3", and R1e2 means "rook on the first rank moves to e2".

The letter P for a pawn is not used, so that e4 means "pawn moves to the square e4". If the piece makes a capture, "x" is inserted before the destination square.

Thus Bxf3 means "bishop captures on f3". When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used in place of a piece initial, and ranks may be omitted if unambiguous.

For example, exd5 pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5 or exd pawn on the e-file captures a piece somewhere on the d-file.

Particularly in Germany, some publications have used ": Some publications omit the capture symbol altogether, so that exd5 would be rendered simply as "ed".

Castling is indicated by the special notations for kingside castling and for queenside castling.

An en passant capture is sometimes marked with the notation "e. Checkmate can be indicated by " ". Chess moves can be annotated with punctuation marks and other symbols.

For example, one variation of a simple trap known as the Scholar's mate see animated diagram can be recorded:. The text-based Portable Game Notation PGN , which is understood by chess software, is based on short form English language algebraic notation.

Until about , the majority of English language chess publications used a form of descriptive notation. In descriptive notation, files are named according to the piece which occupies the back rank at the start of the game, and each square has two different names depending on whether it is from White's or Black's point of view.

For example, the square known as "e3" in algebraic notation is "K3" King's 3rd from White's point of view, and "K6" King's 6th from Black's point of view.

When recording captures, the captured piece is named rather than the square on which it is captured except to resolve ambiguities.

Thus, Scholar's mate is rendered in descriptive notation:. Squares are identified by numeric coordinates, for example a1 is "11" and h8 is "88".

Moves are described by the "from" and "to" squares, and captures are not indicated. For example, the opening move 1.

Castling is described by the king's move only, for example for White castling kingside, for Black castling queenside.

These two parts of the chess-playing process cannot be completely separated, because strategic goals are mostly achieved through tactics, while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play.

A game of chess is normally divided into three phases: In chess, tactics in general concentrate on short-term actions — so short-term that they can be calculated in advance by a human player or by a computer.

The possible depth of calculation depends on the player's ability. In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides, a deep calculation is more difficult and may not be practical, while in "tactical" positions with a limited number of forced variations, strong players can calculate long sequences of moves.

A forced variation that involves a sacrifice and usually results in a tangible gain is called a combination. A common type of chess exercise, aimed at developing players' skills, is showing players a position where a decisive combination is available and challenging them to find it.

Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play. During the evaluation, players must take into account numerous factors such as the value of the pieces on the board, control of the center and centralization, the pawn structure , king safety, and the control of key squares or groups of squares for example, diagonals, open files, and dark or light squares.

The most basic step in evaluating a position is to count the total value of pieces of both sides. The king is more valuable than all of the other pieces combined, since its checkmate loses the game.

But in practical terms, in the endgame the king as a fighting piece is generally more powerful than a bishop or knight but less powerful than a rook.

Another important factor in the evaluation of chess positions is the pawn structure sometimes known as the pawn skeleton , or the configuration of pawns on the chessboard.

Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated , doubled , or backward pawns and holes , once created, are often permanent.

Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset for example, by the possibility of developing an attack.

A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game the "opening moves". Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopez or Sicilian Defense.

They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves.

The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar: Most players and theoreticians consider that White, by virtue of the first move, begins the game with a small advantage.

This initially gives White the initiative. The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening. There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed.

Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame; see start of the endgame. Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position.

Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain. Middlegame combinations are often connected with an attack against the opponent's king.

Some typical patterns have their own names; for example, the Boden's Mate or the Lasker—Bauer combination. Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure.

An example is the minority attack , which is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside.

The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames.

Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame i.

Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending.

Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.

The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and the endgame: Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board.

Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king.

For example, king and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns.

Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as " rook and pawn versus rook " endgames.

Noble chess players, Germany, c. Two kings and two queens from the Lewis chessmen British Museum. In the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance , chess was a part of noble culture; it was used to teach war strategy and was dubbed the " King's Game ".

Castiglione explains it further:. And what say you to the game at chestes? It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie, quoth Syr Friderick.

But me think it hath a fault, whiche is, that a man may be to couning at it, for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much study, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or compase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure, he knoweth no more but a game.

Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commendable, then the excellency.

Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost, but others partially survive, such as the Lewis chessmen.

Chess was often used as a basis of sermons on morality. An example is Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium sive super ludo scacchorum 'Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess' , written by an Italian Dominican monk Jacobus de Cessolis c.

This book was one of the most popular of the Middle Ages. Known in the circles of clerics, students, and merchants, chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages.

During the Age of Enlightenment , chess was viewed as a means of self-improvement. Benjamin Franklin , in his article " The Morals of Chess " , wrote:.

The Game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement; several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it.

By playing at Chess then, we may learn:. Foresight , which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action [ Circumspection , which surveys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action: Caution , not to make our moves too hastily [ With these or similar views, chess is taught to children in schools around the world today.

Many schools host chess clubs, and there are many scholastic tournaments specifically for children. Tournaments are held regularly in many countries, hosted by organizations such as the United States Chess Federation and the National Scholastic Chess Foundation.

Chess is also present in contemporary popular culture. For example, the characters in Star Trek play a futuristic version of the game called " Tri-Dimensional Chess ".

Rowling's Harry Potter plays. The hero of Searching for Bobby Fischer struggles against adopting the aggressive and misanthropic views of a world chess champion.

The thriller film Knight Moves is about a chess grandmaster who is accused of being a serial killer. Stating "chess is a waste of time and an opportunity to squander money.

It causes enmity and hatred between people. Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions.

The creator is known as a chess composer. Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.

It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn. The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:.

Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and congresses. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee , [89] but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games ; chess does have its own Olympiad , held every two years as a team event.

Invitation-only tournaments regularly attract the world's strongest players. Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels.

Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation , alongside other mental-skill games such as Contract Bridge , Go , and Scrabble.

The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE: All the titles are open to men and women.

Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in , a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in hold the unrestricted GM title. As of August , there are active grandmasters and international masters in the world.

Top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, Ukraine, and Germany, with , 78, and The country with most grandmasters per capita is Iceland, with 11 GMs and 13 IMs among the population of , International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players by the International Correspondence Chess Federation.

National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the chess expert title used in the United States.

Elo is a statistical system based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable.

Arpad Elo thought of a player's true skill as the average of that player's performance random variable, and showed how to estimate the average from results of player's games.

The US Chess Federation implemented Elo's suggestions in , and the system quickly gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than older systems; it was adopted by FIDE in Chess has a very extensive literature.

In , the chess historian H. Murray estimated the total number of books, magazines, and chess columns in newspapers to be about 5, Wood estimated the number, as of , to be about 20, No one knows how many have been printed.

The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess have been known for hundreds of years.

The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be about 10 43 , and is provably less than 10 47 , [] [] with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10 The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10 , a number known as the Shannon number.

Chess has inspired many combinatorial puzzles, such as the knight's tour and the eight queens puzzle.

One of the most important mathematical challenges of chess is the development of algorithms that can play chess.

Since the advent of the digital computer in the s, chess enthusiasts, computer engineers and computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.

The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: Nowadays, chess programs compete in the World Computer Chess Championship , held annually since At first considered only a curiosity, the best chess playing programs have become extremely strong.

In , a computer won a chess match using classical time controls against a reigning World Champion for the first time: In , a mobile phone won a category 6 tournament with a performance rating With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability, computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.

Internet Chess Servers allow people to find and play opponents all over the world. The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regarding cheating during games, most notably the " bathroom controversy " during the World Championship.

In , Ernst Zermelo used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory.

The category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: Some applications of combinatorial game theory to chess endgames were found by Elkies There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.

De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. The ability to memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill, since masters and novices, when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces, had equivalent recall about half a dozen positions in each case.

Rather, it is the ability to recognize patterns, which are then memorized, which distinguished the skilled players from the novices.

When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall. More recent research has focused on chess as mental training ; the respective roles of knowledge and look-ahead search; brain imaging studies of chess masters and novices; blindfold chess ; the role of personality and intelligence in chess skill; gender differences; and computational models of chess expertise.

The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to much recent research.

Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess. For example, Fernand Gobet and colleagues have shown that stronger players started playing chess at a young age and that experts born in the Northern Hemisphere are more likely to have been born in late winter and early spring.

Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.

Although the link between performance in chess and general intelligence is often assumed, researchers have largely failed to confirm its existence.

However, performance in chess also relies substantially on one's experience playing the game, and the role of experience may overwhelm the role of intelligence.

Chess experts are estimated to have in excess of 10, and possibly as many as , position patterns stored in their memory; long training is necessary to acquire that amount of data.

A study of young chess players in the United Kingdom found that strong players tended to have above-average IQ scores, but, within that group, the correlation between chess skill and IQ was moderately negative, meaning that smarter children tended to achieve a lower level of chess skill.

This result was explained by a negative correlation between intelligence and practice in the elite subsample, and by practice having a higher influence on chess skill.

There are more than two thousand published chess variants, [] most of them of relatively recent origin, [] including:.

Wizard spielregeln -

For example, during round five, there are five tricks to be won. The colour of the trump suit is highlighted to help players remember what is being called for. Aus den übrigen Karten wird die Trumpffarbe gezogen und in der Tischmitte platziert. Wenn ihr also nicht nur gute Karten besitzt, sondern auch noch gut einschätzen könnt, solltet ihr Voraussagen treffen. Jedem Wert ist eine Berufsbezeichnung z. Stonehenge — die glutrot schimmernde Sonne verleiht den hoch aufragenden Felsen einen erhabenen Anblick. Menschen blau , Elfen grün , Zwerge rot und Riesen gelb.

Wizard Spielregeln Video

Wizard - Die Spielregeln Spielerin C hat null Stiche prognostiziert und auch keine bekommen; sie erhält 20 Punkte für die richtige Prognose. Players playmillion casino bonus follow the lead in the game order. The winner is the player with the most points. Sie Beste Spielothek in Krauchthal finden höher als jede Capture the flag für Kinder. Einfarbig für 3 oder 4 Spieler: For example, during round five, there are five tricks to be won. Wer am Ende der dortmund tottenham live stream Spielrunde die meisten Punkte gesammelt hat, gewinnt das Spiel und wird zum besten Magier gekührt. In jeder Spielrunde erhalten alle Spieler eine zusätzliche Karte. Kartenspiel mit speziellem Blatt Stichspiel Spiel Die vier Zaubererkarten sind immer Trumpf. Auf dem Block werden die Punkte aus der vorherigen Runde sofort hinzugezählt oder abgezogen. Stichrunde, bei 4 Teilnehmern die If a wizard is turned up at the end of the deal, the player who is dealer gets to choose trumps. Die Lehrlinge spielen so lange, bis in der letzten Stichrunde alle Karten ausgeteilt wurden. Farben spielen keine Rolle. Sie kann in jedem Stich gespielt werden. Zum jährigem Jubiläum hat Amigo eine Sonderausgabe auf den Markt gebracht, welche 6 zusätzliche Karten mit neuen Eigenschaften enthält. In den vergangenen Jahren hat die Wizard-Familie Zuwachs bekommen: Es gewinnt den Stich: Die jeweils stärkste Karte ist die 13 , die schwächste Karte ist die 1. Spielverlauf Wizard setzt sich aus einem eigen für dieses Kartenspiel gestalteten Kartendecks aus 60 Karten zusammen. Dies ist nur bei drei oder vier Spielern möglich. The lead player is always shown on the far left, the rest of the players are then shown in sequence to the right. Dadurch bleibt jeder Lehrling von den Tipps seiner Konkurrenten völlig unbeeinflusst.

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